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Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene files articles of impeachment against AG Merrick Garland

Citizens for Legitimate Government - 6 hours 39 min ago

Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene files articles of impeachment against AG Merrick Garland --Garland issued a statement confirming that he had personally approved the raid | 12 Aug 2022 | Georgia Republican Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene on Friday announced that she had filed articles of impeachment against Attorney General Merrick Garland following the FBI's Monday raid on former President Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago estate. Greene posted the articles on Twitter, saying that Garland's "personal approval to seek a search warrant for the raid on the home of the 45th President of the United States, Donald J. Trump, constitutes a blatant attempt to persecute a political opponent." FBI agents from the Washington Field Office on Monday raided Trump's Florida estate in search of classified documents the former president may have removed from the White House.

Categories: News

Donald Trump: All Documents Seized by FBI Were 'Declassified' and 'All They Had to Do Was Ask'

Citizens for Legitimate Government - 8 hours 43 min ago

Donald Trump: All Documents Seized by FBI Were 'Declassified' and 'All They Had to Do Was Ask' | 12 Aug 2022 | President Donald Trump on Friday claimed that all the documents seized by FBI agents during the raid on his house Monday were declassified. "Number one, it was all declassified," Trump wrote in a statement released to reporters. "Number two, they didn't need to 'seize' anything." The former president said the documents were secure and the FBI could have asked for any documents that they wanted but accused them of choosing a more political route. "They could have had it anytime they wanted and that includes LONG ago," he wrote. "ALL THEY HAD TO DO WAS ASK."

Categories: News

“A Unique Form of Hell”: How Community Stepped into Action in the Wake of Unite the Right in Charlottesville

It's Goin Down - 8 hours 55 min ago

Five years after the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, a survivor of the car attack looks back on the importance of community support and solidarity.

On August 12, 2017 a Nazi mowed us down and murdered Heather Heyer. The past five years have been a unique form of hell.

What stands out for me is the power of our community. Moments after James Fields ran us over our community stepped into action. Medics were there to stop me from bleeding out and to prevent the broken pieces of my spine from paralyzing me. Activists protected us from the prying eyes of the press and shielded us from the sun. Comrades around the world rallied to gather donations and organize protests.

#Sacramento Out in Solidarity with #Charlottesville #DefendCville

— It's Going Down (@IGD_News) August 13, 2017

Survivors have witnessed unspeakable hate and endured acute mental and physical pain. We have also been surrounded by the most loving, caring, selfless community I can imagine. I am incredibly grateful to every single person who helped me navigate this hell. Thank you for every hospital visit, every kind word, every flower and meal and donation. Thank you to everyone who continued to fight and gave me the support and grace to heal. You have my utmost gratitude and respect.

My community filled these past five years with beautiful, tender memories of love. The comrade who lovingly painted my back brace. The friend who walked miles every day to visit me. Loved ones who spent hours with me in the hospital, talking and painting my toenails. The friend who fed me when I was too weak to pick up a fork. The community members who brought me green juice when my iron levels were low from blood loss. The loved ones who held my hand when I was in excruciating pain. The amazing friend who took me into her home, gave me pain meds around the clock, and lovingly tended my broken body. Every kind hand that pushed my wheelchair or handed me my cane. My community literally carried me when I could not walk.

The State not only failed car attack survivors but actively harassed us. Days after the car attack the FBI showed up on our hospital rooms. They promised to pay for our medical bills but instead, 3 months later, delivered grand jury subpoenas.

#Charlottesville community stands in solidarity with those resisting the grand jury.

— It's Going Down (@IGD_News) December 14, 2017

I did not want to participate in James Fields’ state trial. I had zero desire to relive that hell. I was subpoenaed anyway. The state forced me into a court room in which the witness stand wasn’t wheelchair accessible. It was my community who provided me with meals, shielded me from the press, and laid loving hands on me when the pain was too much to bear.

At James Fields’ first appearance for the state trial the government promised to escort survivors in through the back door of the court, away from the press. They neglected to consider that survivors using mobility devices wouldn’t be able to navigate the stairs. So survivors were paraded into the court room through the front door in front of the press.

The State monitored us in the court room, turning their backs to the fascist murderer on trial in order to police survivors. It was our community who shielded us from the press and kept us. I was able to focus on the hell of the trial knowing that loving eyes and ears were keeping watch outside the courtroom. The State provided nothing but cheap sawhorses to protect us. Their buildings had steps when we were in wheelchairs. You were our ramps.

Working-class people will need to hit the streets in mass numbers just as we did following Unite the Right in Charlottesville, shutting down the Alt-Right with tens of thousands of people. We did it before, we can do it again.

— It's Going Down (@IGD_News) November 3, 2020

After James Fields ran us over, our community rallied locally and around the world. A Nazi broke our bodies, but because of our communities, he could not break our spirit. Let us come together in this spirit.

At the Unite the Right rally we came together against the fascists. We need to remain unified in order to solidify our strength. Don’t let our differences divide us.
Together we are strong. Together we can follow in Heather’s courageous path. Our love and our fire will continue to light the way.

Thank you to everyone who showed up to protest the Unite the Right Rally. Thank you to the activists who bravely held their ground. Thank you to everyone who pitched in both on and off site. Every bottle of water, every bite of food was a thread in the fabric of support.

photo: Anthony Crider (CC BY 2.0)

Categories: News

World Economic Forum Wants to Use AI To Automatically Censor Speech on the Internet

Citizens for Legitimate Government - 8 hours 57 min ago

World Economic Forum Wants to Use AI To Automatically Censor Speech on the Internet | 11 Aug 2022 | The World Economic Forum (WEF) proposed a new way of censoring online content that requires a small group of experts to train artificial intelligence on identifying "misinformation" and abusive content. The WEF published an article Wednesday outlining a plan to overcome frequent instances of "child abuse [Yeah, right!], extremism, disinformation, hate speech and fraud" online, which the organization said cannot be handled by human "trust and safety teams," according to ActiveFence Trusty & Safety Vice President Inbal Goldberger, who authored the article. Instead, the WEF proposed an AI-driven method of moderating online content, where subject matter experts provide training sets to the AI so it can learn to recognize and flag or restrict content that human moderators would deem dangerous. The system works through "human-curated, multi-language, off-platform intelligence," input provided from expert sources, to create "learning sets" for the AI machine.

Categories: News

'Sounds about Right': Ex-CIA Chief Michael Hayden Implies Trump Should Be Executed for Taking Classified Docs

'Sounds about Right': Ex-CIA Chief Michael Hayden Implies Trump Should Be Executed for Taking Classified Docs | 12 Aug 2022 | Former CIA Director [deep-state dirt-bag] Michael Hayden seemed to endorse the execution of former president Donald Trump on Thursday after a report indicated FBI agents were searching the former president's residence for classified documents related to nuclear weapons. Hayden responded to a tweet on Thursday by presidential historian Michael Beschloss, who noted that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Americans who were convicted of spying on behalf of the Soviet Union, were "convicted for giving U.S. nuclear secrets to Moscow, and were executed June 1953." Hayden, who previously served as director of the National Security Agency and the CIA under former Presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, replied to the tweet: "Sounds about right."

Categories: News

ABC News Chief Investigative Reporter: Americans Who Are Angry Over Trump Raid Are 'Neo-Nazis' Because Merrick Garland Is Jewish

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 23:33

ABC News Chief Investigative Reporter: Americans Who Are Angry Over Trump Raid Are 'Neo-Nazis' Because Merrick Garland Is Jewish | 12 Aug 2022 | The outrage amongst Americans over the unprecedented FBI raid of former President Trump's Mar-a-Lago home is anti-Semitic in nature because Attorney General Merrick Garland is Jewish, warns ABC News Chief Investigative Reporter Josh Margolin. "Far right, neo-Nazis, white supremacists" are calling for violence following the raid of Trump's estate because Attorney General Merrick Garland is Jewish, the corporate media talking head argued on Friday. "As soon as President Trump put out confirmation on Monday that the raid had been done and was underway, we immediately started seeing factions on the far right, neo-Nazis, white supremacists, militia organizers calling for violence as they always have done against Jews -- the attorney general is Jewish," Margolin said. "Against the FBI, federal law enforcement, against other perceived enemies -- enemies they perceive to be enemies of President Trump.”

Categories: News

“Car Culture”: Just Stop

Anarchist News - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 17:25
"Fire that destroyed nearly 4,000 cars at RSW rental lot, causing $100M in damage ruled an accident"

From Center for a Stateless Society by Dawie Coetzee

In the course of his 2006 Rothbard Memorial Lecture, Rothbard’s “Left and Right”: Forty Years Later, Roderick Long creates a beautiful device to illustrate package-deal anti-concepts in the Randian sense:

“Suppose I were to invent a new word, zaxlebax, and define it as ‘a metallic sphere, like the Washington Monument.’ That’s the definition — ‘a metallic sphere, like the Washington Monument.’  In short, I build my ill-chosen example into the definition. Now some linguistic subgroup might start using the term zaxlebax as though it just meant ‘metallic sphere,’ or as though it just meant ‘something of the same kind as the Washington Monument.’ And that’s fine. But my definition incorporates both, and thus conceals the false assumption that the Washington Monument is a metallic sphere; any attempt to use the term zaxlebax, meaning what I mean by it, involves the user in this false assumption. That’s what Rand means by a package-deal term.”

Long goes on to characterize the term capitalism, as commonly used, indeed possibly as Ayn Rand herself used it, as such a package-deal term. I note with delight that zaxlebax has entered the vocabulary of certain anarchist regions. Kaile Hultner has described “fake news” as a zaxlebax. Today I wish to propose that car culture is a zaxlebax.

A search for the cliché “America’s love affair with the automobile” — including the quotes — turns up over 11 000 hits. The first of these traces the first use of that expression to a 1961 television show sponsored by the DuPont chemicals concern, then a major shareholder in General Motors who had every incentive to present the dominance of the automobile in urban mobility as a spontaneous, natural phenomenon. Likewise, online references to car culture abound, and the sense implicit in the vast majority of them is remarkably consistent. Yet I struggle to find as much as a single attempt at a definition of car culture, and could find none at all which adequately reflects that specific sense. If I had to attempt such a definition, the results would be distinctly zaxlebaxean: “popular enthusiasm for automobiles, resulting in excessive structural dependence on private vehicular mobility.”

Now, with apologies to Prof. Long, some linguistic subgroup might start using the term car culture as though it just meant “popular enthusiasm for automobiles,” or as though it just meant “that which causes excessive structural dependence on private vehicular mobility.” And that’s fine. But my definition incorporates both, and thus conceals the false assumption that popular enthusiasm for automobiles causes excessive structural dependence on private vehicular mobility; any attempt to use the term car culture, meaning what I — and most of the abovementioned online items — mean by it, involves the user in this false assumption.

George Monbiot is particularly bad in this regard. One of the few figures of comparable profile who adequately recognizes the full scale and severity of the problem, he nevertheless consistently misses the state-driven structural robustness underlying the problem. Rightly realizing that minor behavioural changes would fail to provide a solution, he mistakenly supposes that major behavioural changes, at gunpoint if necessary, might. Thus, if only we could beat the car culture out of the gearhead yobbos down the pub, the systemic entrenchment of car dependence would vanish. His entire take rests on the conflation inherent in my above attempted definition of car culture — though to be fair his detractors are arguably much worse.

In many instances, car culture means the popular culture in which the automobile features strongly as a locus of meaning: everything which revolves around ordinary people getting excited about cars. Yet it is especially when we are dealing with issues of urban mobility that we use another sense of car culture, that of a planning or policy culture, an institutional culture, in which designing around mobility exclusively by car is the unreflecting default and the overwhelming norm. The danger is then, without really realizing it, to assume that planners design around mobility exclusively by car because ordinary people get excited about cars (or worse, because excitement about cars constitutes some kind of sentient miasma which eats people’s brains, against which your own superiority renders you immune.)

And understanding the difference between these two senses of car culture does indeed reveal an erroneous assumption which a lot of people entertain in some form of another: the idea that the present dominant shape of a city somehow reflects something like a popular will, and not the results of express, interested planning. It is surprising how often I encounter the implicit idea that urban freeways grew out of cow-paths by a spontaneous process of successive paving-over, instead of being built in response to complex planning driven by considerations of industry and economics, often biased in favour of established economic interests against those of ordinary citizens; or that people live in car-dependent dormitory suburbs because they prefer isolation as an intrinsic good, and not because decades of zoning legislation have led to the overwhelming bulk of housing options to be in car-dependent dormitory suburbs.

It is of course the same idea as that the state is the incarnation of society, by magical means; the idea that law codifies, presumably for some aesthetic purpose of neatness, what people are overwhelmingly going to do anyway, and does not at all serve to coerce them into doing what they would not do in large numbers in a million years. This way of thinking is anathema to any anarchist, but even we often fail to grasp the full extent to which the ordinary elements of the landscape we inhabit are shaped by the machinations of the state and capital in collusion. Thus even we address ourselves to “hearts and minds” en masse, for resolutions which instead may only be found in circumstances.

So, popular car culture is not the same as institutional car culture. Popular car culture does not cause institutional car culture — though it might validly be argued that institutional car culture allows popular car culture to be more prevalent than it might otherwise have been, if also more diffuse and more superficial. But I should go one better: the two senses of car culture are not only different; they are opposed. Despite institutional car culture multiplying casual occasions for popular car culture, institutional car culture is ultimately inimical to deep or serious iterations of popular car culture.

The process by which the automobile came to be the ubiquitous core component of systems of urban mobility almost the world over is complex. It is perhaps worth noting that the automobile had existed for almost half a century before this process of political-economic systems-building even began. Nor was the automobile that rare: the common characterization of the automobile before WWI as “a plaything for the rich” is certainly susceptible to critique. In Vintage Cars 1886-1930 (1983) motoring historian G. N. Georgano outlines the development of affordable automobiles from as early as 1895, when De Dion Bouton introduced their popular motor tricycle. Georgano elaborates: “The Autocar’s guide to cars available in Britain in February 1904 listed no fewer than 38 models costing less than £200, of which the cheapest, a single-cylinder New Orleans, went for only £80.” This enabled widespread enthusiasm to develop around automobiles, i.e. popular car culture: yet the impact this had, even at an incipient or embryonic level, on the prevailing patterns of human settlement and systems of mobility was exactly zero. And so it would remain for decades.

There were certainly those who imagined at a theoretical level a future in which the automobile would come to be thoroughly integrated into the life, industry, economy, and indeed the politics of the world. The prophets of High Modernism foresaw a sort of super-capitalism: Blake’s satanic mills made clean, sleek, angelic, their true nature revealed only by a violent formal simplicity which recalls Jacob Burckhardt’s characterization of tyranny as the denial of complexity. Le Corbusier proposed his Ville Contemporaine already in 1922, the same year Benito Mussolini’s Fascists came to power in Italy. There is an affinity between Mussolini’s subsequent economic policy of corporatism1 and Le Corbusier’s subsequent development of his proposal into the 1925 Plan Voisin2, which would have surpassed Baron Hausmann’s vandalism of the 1860s a thousandfold, razing great swaths of Paris to make way for sundered ranks of cruciform skyscrapers connected, of course, by automobile.

In the USA, Frank Lloyd Wright would in 1932 present his Broadacre City concept, which followed much the same automobile-reliant theme, albeit with less ruthless severity. Wright’s proposal had clear conceptual and aesthetic kinship with the ideas of Ebenezer Howard, Frederick Law Olmstead, and the Garden City movement of the turn of the 20th century3. Though it originally paid no heed to the automobile at all, this was nevertheless at the very least resigned to capitalism, having the capitalist wage system implicit in the strict separation of dwelling and working as a fundamental component. All these were rather mild and cozy, compared to Le Corbusier’s bold nightmares, even if they held the seeds of the modern car-centered city.

The first transport infrastructure insertions of Robert Moses into the urban fabric of New York from 1927 might seem even milder, were it not for the fact that they actually got built. These really represented the first actions by states to give a specific place and systemic role to the automobile, though at that time they were rather tentative. It required political events, part of a world-wide wave only a few years later, to set Moses onto the path which eventually led to his becoming Jane Jacobs’s arch-nemesis.

The crystallization of Fascist corporatism during the 1920s was really a manifestation of a broader intellectual climate at the time regarding the organization of industry and economy. A salamander’s pride in one’s comfort with the implications of Taylorist scientific management marked the stance of anyone aspiring to the status of intellectual. Centralization was in fashion, paradoxically considered both an inevitability and an ideal precarious enough to warrant any excess of authoritarianism. There was no question about the desirability, in the interests of what James C. Scott would subsequently term legibility, of restricting industries to small enough numbers of huge entities for states to have a privileged individual relationship with each. 

Parallels have been drawn between the industrial policies of the Third Reich and those of the New Deal; though it is probable that it was Roosevelt who influenced Hitler, rather than the other way round. Henry Ford notoriously admired Hitler; and Stalin in turn admired Henry Ford and sought to implement Fordism — in some ways an attempt to expand Taylorism to a social breadth — in the Soviet Union. This resulted in the establishment of the GAZ automobile works on Ford lines in 1929, manufacturing the 1930 Ford Model A from 1932 as the GAZ-A.

None of this amounted to a hill of beans in the scheme of things until the institution of the New Deal in 1933. It was by this that such a thing as an institutional car culture, endowed with the force of law, first came into being: a programme to create demand for the products of an elite motor industry through structural necessity, as a legitimate function of the state. And this has determined the nature of the motor industry, the place of the automobile in systems of mobility, and indeed the automobile itself ever since, expanding over time from the USA to Europe, the Far East, and the entire world.

It must be stressed that what the automobile is today — the very kind of thing it is — is the result of state policies and programmes such as this. It is not the result of cumulative tinkering on the part of countless innovators. It comes from the vision of all the Volk daily driving their KdF-Wagen from their bucolic suburban wholesomeness —no inner-city decadence!— to the factory and back, and all the macro-economic number-crunching that entails, however it translates into languages other than German, backed by the violence of official authority. It doesn’t come from Dr. Fred Lanchester’s obsession with “the periodicity of a man walking” or Major W. G. Wilson’s head-scratching about gearboxes; nor yet from Alphonse Forceau’s truly celestial insights into suspension interconnection.

Programmes like the New Deal led to a fundamental change in the shape of the automobile industry, from a large number of typically small organizations each responding to systems of mobility as they found them, to a small number of very large, powerful organizations whose privileged relationships with the state enabled them to rely on the creation of new systems of mobility for their express benefit through policy. It also precipitated a change in the dominant technological trajectory, establishing the greatest possible technological need for capital investment as an aim to be pursued for its own sake, thus taking the technology embodied in the automobile further and further away from the vernacular artisanal capabilities of ordinary people. Again, this was not a spontaneous process! It was essentially political. The change of 1934 was sudden and radical — the Chrysler Airflow in the USA and the Citroën 7CV “Traction Avant” both employing with unprecedented fundamentality the manufacturing technologies of the Budd steel-pressing company, whose most salient characteristic was technological inaccessibility, i.e. the enclosure of the technology of production to the benefit of capital — but it was the mere beginning of a decades-long process. I have before called the years 1934-1989 the contested age of the automobile, during which the automobile as an inherently mass-produced thing intended to be indispensable to the whole population was actively elaborated, but alternative paradigms were still able to coexist with it.

The most important aspect of the “philosophy of 1934” is that it relied on manufacturing techniques which are viable only at volumes of output far in excess of what demand might have existed without planning policies designed to create a functional need for the product. The very possibility of the sort of volumes of automobile traffic we today regard as normal was engineered.

The automobile itself would hereafter in its design be increasingly oriented to the population at large, who might have no interest in automobiles at all, rather than to a minority of whom some degree of technical understanding might be expected. It is not surprising that in the USA, where new urban expansion rapidly outstripped prior systems of mobility, the focus should be on such innovations as the automatic transmission — introduced on Oldsmobiles and Cadillacs in 1939, after a long series of partially-automatic arrangements from various manufacturers — above all else. Thus was the automobile gradually transformed from an instrument of technological participation to the service accessory, whose mechanism is really for all design intents and purposes none of your business, it is today.

Did this broad orientation establish popular car culture? No: popular car culture had existed quite spontaneously since the late 19th century, without any significant change to cities as a result. And if that had demonstrably been possible, it could surely be possible again.

By the 1960s the manufacturing paradigm in which cars could be manufactured by their millions or not at all had begun to be physically untenable. Creating enough demand for industrial output required that automobiles be used at such an intensity that certain emissions — most notably carbon monoxide4 — were being generated faster than they could deteriorate in the atmosphere. All logic should have pointed to the intensity of automobile use being the crux of the problem, but the entire thrust of prevailing industrial policy the world over was that this was a problem which could not be allowed to be solved. Instead, the industry devised technical fixes like the catalytic converter which, besides realizing massive profits on platinum-series mining interests for certain parties, required to be imposed by legal main force, in order to maintain the intensity of automobile use which the established industrial capitalist paradigm required. This element of legal requirement resulted in a fundamental change in the relationship between the automobile’s manufacturer, the automobile’s owner, and the state, further reducing the ordinary motorist to a passive “pure consumer” and further elevating the manufacturer to an effective organ of the state.

Just as the techniques of manufacture are a reflection of the organizational structure of the industry, just so the nature of the product is a reflection of the techniques of its manufacture. A new kind of automobile industry after 1933 necessarily resulted in new trajectories of automotive technological development: all, with very few exceptions, hiding within them the underlying aim of increasing the requirement for capital investment in manufacturing, and consequently increasing the minimum viable volume of output. Over half a century the automobile was developed, indeed reconstituted, specifically to be impossible to make except in enormous quantities.

And this is where we are: manyness is intrinsic to the design of the modern automobile, and essential to its nature. Every new innovation which emerges from the established automobile industry expands and intensifies this one fundamental characteristic. Far from representing a paradigmatic disruption, the new electric car is the apotheosis of what all automobiles have been since 1990, and worse. The modern automobile absolutely needs the car-dependent city in order to exist.

We can have self-driving electric cars, or we can have enough walkability soundly to abolish car-dependence. We cannot have both. My fear is that too many people will consider the former an acceptable alternative to the latter.

If we wish soundly to abolish car-dependence without precluding the manufacture of automobiles as such — remember, this condition had existed, more or less stably, from c.1890 to c.1930 — it would be necessary to make automobiles in a radically different way. It would be necessary to make orders of magnitude fewer of them: and that means automobiles designed for intrinsic fewness. As the established automobile industry relies on the necessity of manyness for its fundamentally privileged existence, we can expect no help from that quarter. What cars are made would have to be made by ordinary people.

There are ordinary people doing that right now, in substantial numbers, in every interstice they are able to wrench open far enough to exploit. Urban advocates too often tend to demonize them, because they represent the very quintessence of popular car culture. But they are not the problem. I hope to show that they could be an indispensable part of the solution.

This issue is important because it forces us to expose common blind spots in thinking about car-dependence. One I encounter often is, “the problem is that cars become a receptacle for all kinds of complexes of cultural association, and are not seen as merely a way of getting from A to B.” But surely what we are saying is precisely that A and B ought to be so situated that a car is the worst imaginable way to get from the former to the latter? A way of getting from A to B is precisely what a car ought not to be. What, then, ought a car to be?

Or, what kinds of cars are likely to be made in a future anarchist society? As the automobile of today is the result of a specific political programme which began in 1934, I would urge a close study of the state of the automotive art of the early 1930s. By this I am not saying that cars in such a society should be cars of the early 1930s, but that there might be merit in an effort to reconstruct counterfactually what might have been but for that programme, with the benefit of critical hindsight. It would be necessary to winnow those later innovations which might have future usefulness from those which have served only to render the techniques of capitalist mass production indispensable. It might not always be a simple separation: some of the former innovations have been dependent on some of the latter, and would therefore require innovative rethinking. And issues of systemic structure should always be borne in mind. Would the organizational machinery necessary to enable present levels of fuel efficiency be justified at less than 1% of the present demand for fuel? How important would aerodynamics be absent state high-speed roads infrastructure programmes aimed at perpetuating dependence on automobiles? I’d suggest that the true image is likely to be less Aptera and more “chain gang” Frazer-Nash.

The very point of efficiency surely depends on the scarcity of the resource in question? When we consider the systemically circular nature of capitalist industry requiring a high rate of resource consumption, sufficient to result in severe scarcity, which then necessitates a level of resource efficiency conveniently attainable by technological means which further reinforce capitalist industry’s ability to necessitate a high rate of resource consumption by raising technological thresholds, and so on, we must come to a different understanding of the place of efficiency in the scheme of things. Of course such efficiency would be possible by other means, absent the demands of capitalist industry; the question is whether it would be worth the bother.

The study of architectural building technology made me a firm believer in 99% solutions — and even 95% solutions — the offense given to futurist geeks notwithstanding. A roof which is 80% waterproof is simply a failure. A roof which is 100% waterproof is likely to be prohibitively expensive and might impose constraints which compromise other design requirements. But a roof which is 99% waterproof is easy: the time-honoured way to do it is 2” of clean sand at the bottom of a large open coffee tin, placed on the ceiling under each point where water is getting in. The ingress of water is never enough even to come close to filling the tin, and when it stops raining the water evaporates again. And it readily broadens to a general principle: my building tech professor used to say, don’t seal stuff; let it leak, then lead what gets in away in a controlled way.5 It is perhaps an efficiency of a different kind, one which accounts for all efforts and expenditures, or do the savings arising from not having to chase that last percentile not count as efficiency?6

It is a different kind of design thinking, one I submit would be of great use in a future anarchist society. But I digress rather horribly: the point is that a future anarchist society with an irrelevantly small fleet of automobiles is entirely possible, without the need to prohibit automobiles in a rather un-anarchic way. I should expect this fleet to comprise farm trucks and other utilitarian vehicles, a handful of emergency vehicles, and a bewildering array of pleasure vehicles, sports cars, specials, speedsters, motorcycles, trikes, motorsport vehicles, off-road vehicles, and all manner of rolling artworks the significations of which are incomprehensible outside their specific contexts — and that is not only perfectly fine, it is vibrancy, creativity, expression, and fun. There is no need to maintain the least semblance of sneering contempt lest suffering all this to exist result in smog, exurban isolation, and pandemic road deaths all over again. That much should be obvious, if popular car culture does not cause institutional car culture. 

I have been arguing for ages that car nuts have every reason to support walkable urbanity, and to oppose the perpetuation of the car-centred city. Car nuts have no vested interest in institutional car culture, none at all. Insofar as institutional car culture has by necessity sought vehemently to exclude ordinary people from active, creative technological engagement with the automobile, it is the car nut, whose very desire is active, creative technological engagement with the automobile, who ought to have the greatest quarrel with it. Nor has the car nut any interest in gridlock, distracted and inattentive drivers, overzealous policing, emissions regulations necessitated by the politically engineered intensity of automobile use, safety regulations justified by the ubiquity and consequent effective obligatoriness of automobile use, or any of the other things which come with the constant prevalence of heavy automobile traffic. The car nut has no interest in cars existing in great numbers, especially as almost all of them are necessarily boring as a result. And insofar as institutional car culture has ruined our urban environments, the car nut has suffered no less as a result than anyone else. Surely all logic would lead us to expect that serious automobile enthusiasts and advocates of walkable urbanity should be on the same side?


[1] Corporatism is a term today most commonly found in anarcho-capitalist circles, used to denote actually-existing capitalism, dominated as it is by large corporations, as opposed to anarcho-capitalists’ idea of “real capitalism”. In the context of Fascism the term means something quite different: the recasting of every sector of industry as a corpus or corps in the service of the state, broadly analogous to armed forces.

[2] Interestingly, Le Corbusier named his urban vision after his friend Gabriel Voisin, the aviation pioneer and subsequent carmaker. Ironically, Le Corbusier’s own Voisin C7 was very much a manifestation of the craft-based production model he so desperately longed to eradicate. Voisin himself certainly had more totalitarian aspirations, his failure to achieve which doubtless accounts for surviving Voisin cars being charmingly eccentric.

[3] The enquirer after a possible design idiom suitable for an anarchist utopia could do much worse than to study the Arts & Crafts movement of the later 19th century. One area in which this movement fell down, however, was in urban design. It had a distinct ruralistic bias, perhaps because the urban horrors of capitalist industry were so graphically raw then; so despite its fascination with all things medieval it failed to find inspiration in the wealth of medieval urban precedents. To my knowledge the only contemporary figure to have attempted such an approach was the Austrian Camillo Sitte, whose links to the Arts & Crafts movement were at best oblique.

[4] All the exhaust emission substances controlled by legislation deteriorate spontaneously in the atmosphere to harmless compounds, given low enough generation rates. Of these, CO has the longest deterioration half-life, in the order of weeks. If CO is able to deteriorate naturally without being replaced, then so are proportionate quantities of HC and NOx.

[5] This ties back to the automobile in the design of the Citroën DS19 of 1955. My professor told how the gutters lining the GRP roof panel were formed as to admit rainwater into the interior of the car and then deposit it over the rear window. I subsequently discovered that the car’s sophisticated hydropneumatic suspension system embodied a rather more profound instance of the same principle. The reason the DS famously settles down slowly onto its bump stops when parked is that, instead of relying on the resistance to wear of hydraulic seals, the system contains no seals at all but maintains a constant slow leak from the pump-driven high-pressure hydraulic circuit to a low-pressure fluid recovery circuit. Leaked fluid runs by gravity to a reservoir, whence it is pumped back into the high-pressure circuit. The result is extremely durable.

[6] To make a fetish of efficiency, to treat it as a philosophical end in its own right, often rests on raising some inputs to unassailable sanctity while sneeringly dismissing a possible majority of others. Chasing the last minuscule saving in resource A is taken to justify any expenditure in resources B, C, and D, because resource-A-efficiency is the measure of advancement, and resource-B-, -C-, and -D-efficiency aren’t even things. This recalls G. K. Chesterton’s characterization of heresy as the raising of one aspect of religious worship — be it the day of the week the Sabbath falls on, the veracity of miraculous physical healing, the manner of baptism, or whatever — to the One Issue to Rule Them All, to the detriment of all the others.

Tags: all cars are bastardscarsc4ss
Categories: News

Radiation threat assessed around nuclear site 'attacked by Ukraine'

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 17:08

Radiation threat assessed around nuclear site 'attacked by Ukraine' | 12 Aug 2022 | The Russian-controlled Zaporozhye nuclear power plant did not sustain any critical damage as a result of shelling by Ukrainian forces this week, according to Vladimir Rogov, a member of the region's military-civil administration. In terms of nuclear safety, everything is in order in the vicinity of the plant and background radiation levels are normal, Rogov said on Friday in an interview with Rossiya-24 news channel. "The operation of the reactors was not disrupted as a result of the shelling," he explained. However, the official noted that the attack had destroyed part of a building belonging to the region's emergency services and one of the shells landed just ten meters away from a radioactive waste storage site. Rogov claimed that the specific division of the Ukrainian Armed Forces responsible for the attack had been identified, and suggested that it had used Western-supplied ammunition.

Categories: News

Wildfire Vol. 3 is coming soon and we are here for it!

Anarchist News - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 17:06

From Unoffensive Animal

Our comrades at Wildfire have let us know they are doing bulk pre orders for Volume 3 of your favourite anarchist animal liberationist magazine.

With so much interesting content in the past two volumes, we are sure volume 3 is not going to disappoint, so we have ordered 100 copies for you all to enjoy. You’ll be able to purchase them through our website once they arrive to us!

They are still taking pre orders for bulk, so if you are a group, a campaign or some sort of colletive that would like to purchase a bunch to make a few extra coins, you can reach them on wildfiremagazine (at) riseup (dot) net, or directly on Instagram on @wildfire.zine.

Their bulk orders are a minimum of 30 magazines, and the price is 1 GBP per mag. Not bad is it?! Get ordering if you think you can shift a few!

We love Wildfire not only because it is very pretty and it has good content, but also because there is no doubt that paper mags create so much more culture than social media accounts.

We can’t wait to have it in stock in our website, are you excited to read it?


Tags: Wildfiremagazinepublicationanimal liberationUnoffensive Animal
Categories: News

Author Salman Rushdie attacked on lecture stage in New York

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 17:02

Author Salman Rushdie attacked on lecture stage in New York | 12 Aug 2022 | Salman Rushdie, the author whose writing led to death threats from Iran in the 1980s, was attacked and apparently stabbed in the neck Friday by a man who rushed the stage as he was about to give a lecture in western New York. An Associated Press reporter witnessed a man confront Rushdie on stage at the Chautauqua Institution and begin punching or stabbing him 10 to 15 times as he was being introduced. The 75-year-old author was pushed or fell to the floor, and the man was arrested. Rushdie was taken by helicopter to a hospital, state police said.

Categories: News

CDC Ends Differentiation of Unvaccinated Under Coronavirus Guidelines

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 14:48

CDC Ends Differentiation of Unvaccinated Under Coronavirus Guidelines | The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated its coronavirus guidelines to end the differentiation of the unvaccinated. Released Thursday, the new guidelines make a variety of changes that would have been unthinkable a year or even six months ago, including a lift on mandatory quarantines for individuals exposed to the virus, an end to screening people with no symptoms, and the elimination of testing recommendations after potential exposure. Contact tracing will also be limited to hospitals and high-risk groups living in nursing homes. The most surprising change is perhaps the CDC’s regard for treating the unvaccinated. Per NPR: "It also brings the recommendations for unvaccinated people in line with people who are fully vaccinated - an acknowledgment of the high levels of population immunity in the U.S., due to vaccination, past COVID-19 infections or both."

Categories: News

Donald Trump calls nuclear docs claim a 'hoax'

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 14:38

Donald Trump calls nuclear docs claim a 'hoax' | 12 Aug 2022 | Former President Donald Trump said Friday that a report claiming FBI agents were looking for documents concerning nuclear weapons at his Mar-a-Lago resort this week was a "hoax" -- as a separate report said the bureau had found “dozens” of classified papers during Monday's raid. "Nuclear weapons issue is a Hoax, just like Russia, Russia, Russia was a Hoax, two Impeachments were a Hoax, the Mueller investigation was a Hoax, and much more," Trump posted to Truth Social Friday morning. "Same sleazy people involved. Why wouldn't the FBI allow the inspection of areas at Mar-a-Lago with our lawyer's [sic], or others, present. Made them wait outside in the heat, wouldn't let them get even close -- said 'ABSOLUTELY NOT,'" Trump went on, before again suggesting that federal agents might have planted information during the search.

Categories: News

Attorney General Garland Says He 'Personally Approved' Mar-a-Lago Raid

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 05:30

Attorney General Garland Says He 'Personally Approved' Mar-a-Lago Raid | 11 Aug 2022 | Attorney General Merrick Garland said Thursday that he "personally approved" the FBI search of former president Donald Trump’s personal residence at Mar-a-Lago earlier this week. He said in a statement delivered from the Department on Justice that the agency "does not take such a decision lightly where possible." "It is standard practice to seek less intrusive means as an alternative to a search and to narrowly scope any search that is undertaken," Garland said. He said that the DOJ has filed a motion in the Southern District of Florida to unseal the search warrant that FBI agents used to search Trump's residence. "The government filed the motion to make public the warrant and receipt in light of the former president's public confirmation of the search, the surrounding circumstances and the substantial public interest in this matter," he said.

Categories: News

IRS Deletes Job Posting Seeking Applicants Willing to 'Use Deadly Force'

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 05:26

IRS Deletes Job Posting Seeking Applicants Willing to 'Use Deadly Force' | 10 Aug 2022 | The IRS deleted a job posting Wednesday seeking a Special Agent "willing to use deadly force" for its law enforcement division, Criminal Investigation (CI). The deletion came amid renewed scrutiny of the IRS in response to a Democrat-backed spending bill that would double the size of the agency. "As a Special Agent you will combine your accounting skills with law enforcement skills to investigate financial crimes," the job advertisement read... The "Major Duties" listed in the job description included "a level of fitness necessary to effectively respond to life-threatening situations on the job," and being "willing and able to participate in arrests, execution of search warrants, and other dangerous assignments." It also included a requirement of carrying "a firearm and be willing to use deadly force, if necessary." ...The post was deleted Monday after the job notice was shared on Twitter by documentarian Ford Fischer, garnering thousands of interactions.

Categories: News

Thermal power plant partially damaged in shelling of NPP, reactors function normally

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 05:14

Thermal power plant partially damaged in shelling of NPP, reactors function normally --Head of Russia's National Defense Control Center Mikhail Mizintsev specified that as a result of strikes, the nuclear station's own thermal power plant was damaged as well as the equipment of spray ponds of the nuclear reactors' cooling system | 11 Aug 2022 | Critically important infrastructure of the Zaporozhye NPP has not been damaged in the shelling by Ukraine's armed forces and the operations of reactors have not been disrupted, head of Russia's National Defense Control Center Mikhail Mizintsev said on Thursday. "On August 11, 2022, the units of the 44th artillery brigade of the Ukrainian army shelled the Zaporozhye nuclear power plant using 152-mm artillery from the direction of the Nikopol populated locality," said Mizintsev who also heads Russia’s Joint Coordination Headquarters for Humanitarian Response in Ukraine. The military official specified that as a result of strikes, the nuclear station's own thermal power plant was damaged as well as the equipment of spray ponds of the nuclear reactors' cooling system. "Only thanks to skilled, trained and efficient actions by the units of Russia's Armed Forces on protecting the nuclear energy facility, the NPP's critically important infrastructure was not damaged and the operations of the reactors were not disrupted," he emphasized.

Categories: News

29 Percent of Young Pfizer COVID Vaccine Recipients Suffered Heart Effects - Study

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 04:25

29 Percent of Young Pfizer COVID Vaccine Recipients Suffered Heart Effects - Study | 10 Aug 2022 | Nearly three in 10 children who received Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine experienced heart effects afterwards, according to a new study. Researchers studied 301 students across two schools in Thailand. The students were aged 13 to 18 and had received a dose of Pfizer's vaccine without a serious adverse event... Researchers conducted laboratory tests to establish a baseline and followed up at three days, seven days, and 14 days after the students received a second dose of the vaccine. Researchers found that 29 percent of the youth experienced cardiovascular effects, including heart palpitations, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Fifty-four had abnormal electrocardiogram results. Six experienced mitral valve prolapse, which the Mayo Clinic describes as a heart valve disease; six had high blood pressure, and seven were diagnosed with heart inflammation. Two of the children were hospitalized, with one being admitted to intensive care.

Categories: News

Trump Pleads the Fifth in New York AG Deposition

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 04:14

Trump Pleads the Fifth in New York AG Deposition | 10 Aug 2022 | Former President Donald Trump announced he did not answer any of New York Attorney General Letitia James's questions as she deposed him Wednesday, employing his constitutional right against self-incrimination. Trump shared a statement on Truth Social Wednesday declaring his innocence, criticizing James, calling the deposition "part of an unfounded politically motivated Witch Hunt" and referencing the Monday FBI raid on his Mar-a-Lago residence. He concluded, "Accordingly, under the advice of my counsel and for all the above reasons, I declined to answer the questions under the right and privileges afforded to every citizen under the United States Constitution." James has been investigating Trump and the Trump Organization for bank, tax and insurance fraud since 2019. The former president had earlier posted that he was at the "very plush, beautiful and expensive" New York AG's office. He added, "Nice working conditions, as people are being murdered all over New York - and she spends her time and effort on trying to 'get Trump.'"

Categories: News

Twitter Announces Plan to 'Protect' November Midterm Elections

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 04:01

Twitter Announces Plan to 'Protect' November Midterm Elections | 11 Aug 2022 | Far-left Twitter has declared it will "protect" the midterm elections with a range of policies designed to suppress what the company considers "misinformation," and deliver Twitter-curated news to users. 2020 was the first American election in which Big Tech companies like Twitter, Facebook, and Google had "election integrity" policies -- and they resulted in one of the most consequential stories of that cycle, the New York Post's reporting on Hunter Biden's corrupt business dealings, being suppressed just weeks before the election. Twitter was one of the companies that suppressed that story in the name of fighting "misinformation" -- now it plans to activate similar policies ahead of the midterms.

Categories: News

Pollster: Hageman Leading Cheney by 57 Points Among Likely Republican Voters

Citizens for Legitimate Government - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 03:27

Pollster: Hageman Leading Cheney by 57 Points Among Likely Republican Voters | 11 Aug 2022 | Trump-endorsed Harriet Hageman is leading Rep. Liz Cheney (R-WY) by 57 points among Republican voters likely to vote in the Wyoming GOP primary, Brian Harnisch, the director of the University of Wyoming's Wyoming Survey and Analysis Center (WYSAC) stated on Thursday. "When looking only at residents who say they are Republican and likely voters in the primary, we actually see Hageman leading by roughly 50 points," the Wyoming pollster said about the August 16 primary race. The poll sampled likely Wyoming voters from all political affiliations from July 25-August 6 and has a four point margin of error.

Categories: News

Between Centrist Decorum and Far-Right Power Grab: Some Critical Notes on the Recent Trump Raid

It's Goin Down - Fri, 08/12/2022 - 03:06

A critical analysis of the neoliberal Center and the Trumpian-Right in the context of the recent FBI raid on Trump’s home in Mar-a-Lago.

At 6:30 AM on Monday, August 8th, the FBI showed up with a search warrant at Mar-a-Lago, Trump’s Florida estate. They were looking for any classified documents or other records that the former president might have illegally taken with him when he left office. The internet promptly went crazy. Trump supporters flooded right-wing channels with claims that politically motivated “weaponization of the law” was turning the US into a “banana republic” – never mind their longstanding demands to prosecute Hillary Clinton over her private email server, a much less serious violation. On the left, Democrats cheered what they are billing as Merrick Garland‘s fearless pursuit of justice, wherever the chase may lead.

On one level, the Democrats have a point. As president, Trump had access to the absolute highest levels of classified information, and if something like, say, plans for the next generation of spy satellites were gathering dust in the back of the Mar-a-Lago loading dock in an unlabeled cardboard box, that would be the most severe violation of classified protocols in US history, by an ex-president no less. In anything like normal circumstances that would be a huge deal in its own right. But circumstances are not normal and this is Trump we’re talking about. It behooves us to dig a little deeper.

Let’s start with Garland. Biden’s attorney general is known as a consummate institutional centrist. A Justice Department memo leaked last month shows he is so committed to the appearance of prosecutorial non-partisanship that any investigation of a political candidate must obtain his personal approval to proceed, continuing a policy instituted by Trump’s last AG, Bill Barr. Despite Garland’s repeated proclamations that no one is above the law and the Justice Department will follow wherever the evidence leads them, it is obvious by now, a year and a half since Trump’s coup attempt, that he has no appetite to indict a former president, especially one who commands a huge nationwide following and is eligible to run again.

In a way, Garland is screwed whichever way he jumps. If he refuses to prosecute Trump for anything, he will enshrine the precedent that presidents are above the law in perpetuity. Indicting Trump on the other hand, might set off a legal war of attrition in which whatever party is out of power would be subject to a barrage of federal investigations and prosecutions. Both courses would be equally damaging to the perception of the rule of law, but giving ex-presidents a lifetime get-out-of-jail-free card would cause far less disruption to the ongoing workings of government. To a technocrat like Garland, who prizes stability above all, door number two is by far the preferred option. If it was up to him, Trump would be home free, but of course there are complications.

As the #January6thCommittee zeros in on the Proud Boys + Oath Keepers who stormed the DC capitol, largely out of view of the public are high ranking military brass who helped grease the wheels of the #J6 attempted coup. An antifascist critical analysis.

— It's Going Down (@IGD_News) June 11, 2022

The biggest thorn in Garland’s side has to be the January 6th commission. As a temporary partisan body with subpoena authority, the commission can do whatever it wants without concerning itself with long-term considerations. As a Congressional committee it enjoys enormous media attention. And since it is investigating people who have apparently never heard of operational security, it has uncovered a wealth of highly damaging evidence, with more on the way (Alex Jones’ texts, lol). This puts Garland in a bind. As long as he could pretend there wasn’t enough evidence to indict Trump and his flunkies he could, just barely, get away with failing to look for such evidence. Cassidy Hutchinson blew that strategy out of the water over a month ago, and on Monday we saw Garland’s response.

Spoiler alert, Mar-a-Lago didn’t get searched because the FBI all of a sudden got a tip that Trump might not have handled classified information according to the strictest reading of the Presidential Records Act. It’s been known publicly since early in the Biden administration that Trump regularly tore up and tried to discard
presidential documents, and that his staff taped many of them back together before sending them to the National Archives. Maggie Haberman of the New York Times revealed back in February that Trump would regularly attempt to flush torn documents down the White House toilets, frequently clogging them in the process. More generally, Trump’s cavalier approach to classified information (1, 2, 3) was well established long before Biden took office. The first order of business of any half-way conscientious document steward in the new administration should have been to determine what information was missing from the papers Trump turned over and what happened to it. Yet those missing documents sat at Mar-a-Lago for a year and a half, quite possibly propping open the doors to janitors closets, absorbing drips from faulty AC units, housing families of cockroaches, and maybe even being photographed by Mar-a-Lago employees in the pay of Chinese intelligence. If Merrick Garland actually cared about that which he is now pretending to care about, that warrant would have been served months ago.

Viewed strategically though, he made a pretty clever move, and one entirely in character for a centrist triangulator and Harvard valedictorian. Instead of caving in completely by diving into the coup attempt, Garland targeted Trump for a completely different offense, but one serious enough that it can’t be dismissed as a mere distraction. This approach confers a few benefits. For starters, it took everyone by surprise and shifted the terrain. Now there’s a new narrative in play, one controlled by the Justice Department, that leaves everybody else scrambling to adjust. Two, Garland is officially out of the shadow of the January 6th commission. Now he’s playing his own part, instead of being dragged along, kicking and screaming, in the commission’s wake. Three, by going with a search warrant instead of a subpoena, Garland made himself look tough and uncompromising. A bunch of FBI agents descending at dawn on Mar-a-Lago presents a far more aggressive image than a process server delivering a court order, bolstering Garland’s public stance that even ex-presidents aren’t above the law. Four, and probably nearest to Garland’s institutionalist heart, Trump is being investigated not for anything he did as president, but for his actions since leaving office and becoming an ostensibly ordinary citizen. This distinction is not going to cut any ice with Fox News of course, but it will enhance Garland’s credibility inside the Beltway because it shows him attempting to preserve some shred of decorum. Fifth, and perhaps best of all, investigations into mishandling classified material are by definition classified themselves. Garland doesn’t just not have to reveal anything about the progress of his investigation. Better still, he’s not even allowed to. If he decides not to seek an indictment, he only has to say: “Sorry, that’s classified,” to anyone who asks him why the hell not.

FBI searched Trump’s home looking for nuclear documents and other items, according to people familiar with the investigation

— The Washington Post (@washingtonpost) August 12, 2022

For such a cute move, it’s almost a shame it’s not going to work. Garland is attempting the impossible, trying to walk a tightrope that doesn’t exist anymore. He seems not to realize that the right-wing is no longer just trying to win elections, it’s trying to eliminate democracy and take power permanently. Consequently, the old rules of engagement no longer apply. If Trump manages to return to the White House in 2025 with a Republican majority in the Senate, we can fully expect whatever craven lickspittle he appoints as attorney general to use the full weight of the federal law enforcement apparatus to attack Hillary, Biden, and probably Garland himself. The excuse may well be Garland’s current investigation.

If Garland had basic common sense, instead of merely a lawyer’s instinct for loopholes combined with an unshakeable commitment to the status quo, he would be investigating Trump for every single federal crime he committed. Given the abundance of evidence, Trump’s abysmal taste in lawyers, and a DC jury pool comprised in large part of Black people who hate Trump and bureaucrats devoted to order and the rule of law, convictions wouldn’t be that hard to obtain. If Garland had hit the ground running in 2021, he might well have had Trump in federal prison by the time the 2024 presidential campaign got under way, or at least forced him to spend so much time in court he couldn’t campaign effectively. That’s not going to happen of course. Garland might or not indict Trump for violating the Presidential Records Act, or even some more serious crime involving classified information, but even if he does it probably won’t keep Trump out of the presidential race.

Meanwhile, Trump gets to fundraise off the search, and use it to whip his base into a(n even bigger) frenzy. In the worst case scenario, Garland’s attempt to thread a needle with no hole will recharge Trump’s flagging political trajectory (which had been suffering from competition from Ron DeSantis, the January 6th revelations, and lack of a Twitter account) without doing him any lasting legal damage. Proving, for the 687th time, that there is no salvation from above. Somebody tell the liberals…

photos: Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0) and Wikipedia Commons

Categories: News